Kaziranga National Park is located between latitudes 26°30′ N and 26°45′ N, and longitudes 93°08′ E to 93°36′ E within two districts in the Indian state of Assam. The Kaliabor – Subdivision of Nagaon District and the Bokakhat Subdivision of Golaghat District.

The park is approximately 40 km (25 miles) in length from east to west, and 13 km (8 miles) in breadth from north to south. Kaziranga covers an area of 378 km2 (146 square miles), with approximately 51.14 km2 (20 sq miles) lost to erosion in recent years. A total addition of 429 km2 (166 square miles) along the present boundary of the park has been made and designated with separate National Park status to provide extended habitat for increasing the population of wildlife or, as a corridor for safe movement of animals to Karbi Anglong Hills. Elevation ranges from 40 meter (131 ft) to 80 meter (262 ft). The park area is circumscribed by the Brahmaputra River, which forms the northern and eastern boundaries, and the Mora Diphlu, which forms the southern boundary. Other notable rivers within the park are the Diphlu and Mora Dhansiri.

The park experiences three seasons summer, monsoon and winter. The winter season, between November and February, is mild and dry, with a mean high of 25 °C (77 °F) and low of 5 °C (41 °F). During this season, beels and nallahs (water channels) dry up.The summer season between March and May is hot, with temperatures reaching a high of 37 °C (99 °F). During this season, animals usually are found near water bodies. The rainy monsoon season lasts from June to September, and is responsible for most of Kaziranga’s annual rainfall of 2,220 mm (87 in). During the peak months of July and August, three-fourths of the western region of the park is submerged, due to the rising water level of the Brahmaputra.

Kaziranga has flat expanses of fertile, alluvial soil, formed by erosion and silt deposition by the River Brahmaputra. The landscape consists of exposed sandbars, riverine flood-formed lakes known as, beels. Kaziranga is one of the largest tracts of protected land in the sub-Himalayan belt, and due to the presence of highly diverse and visible species, has been described as a biodiversity hotspot. The park is located in the Indomalaya ecozone, and the dominant biomes of the region are Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests of the tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests biome and a frequently flooded variant of the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands of the tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.

The park has the distinction of being home to the world’s largest population of the Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros.

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