Manas National Park or Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is a National Park, UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, Tiger Reserve, an Elephant Reserve and a Biosphere Reserve in Assam, India. Located in the Himalayan foothills, the park is known for its rare and endangered endemic Wildlife such as the Assam Roofed Turtle, Hispid Hare, Golden Langur and Pygmy Hog. Manas is famous for its population of the Wild Water Buffalo.
The park is divided into three ranges. The western range is based at Panbari, the central at Bansbari near Barpeta Road and the eastern at Bhuiyapara near Pathsala. The ranges are not well connected while two major rivers need to be forded in going from the centre to the Panbari, there is a rough trail connecting the central to the eastern range.
The Manas river flows thorough the west of the park and is the main river within it. It is a major tributary of Brahmaputra River and splits into two separate rivers, the Beki and Bholkaduba as it reaches the plains. Five other smaller rivers also flow through the National Park which lies on a wide, low-lying alluvial terrace spreading out below the foothills of the outer Himalaya. The Manas river also serves as an International Border dividing India and Bhutan. The bedrock of the savanna area in the north of the park is made up of limestone and sandstone, whereas the grasslands in the south of the park stand on deep deposits of fine alluvium. The combination of Sub-Himalayan Bhabar Terai formation along with the riverine succession continuing up to Sub-Himalayan mountain forest make it one of the richest areas of biodiversity in the world. The park is 950 square kilometers in area and is situated at a height of 61m to 110m above mean sea level.
The sanctuary has recorded 55 species of mammals Elephants, Indian Rhinoceros, Gaurs, Asian Water Buffaloes, Barasingha, Indian Tigers, Indian Leopards, Clouded Leopards, Asian Golden Cats, Dholes, Capped Langurs, Golden Langurs, Assamese Macaques, Slow Loris, Hoolock Gibbons, Smooth-Coated Otters, Sloth Bears, Barking Deers, Hog Deers, Black Panthers, Sambar Deers, Chitals etc and many mores.
The park is well known for species of rare and endangered wildlife that are not found anywhere else in the world like the Assam Roofed Turtle, Hispid Hare, Golden Langur and Pygmy Hog.
The Manas hosts more than 450 species of birds. It has the largest population of the endangered Bengal Florican to be found anywhere. Other major bird species include Great Hornbills, Jungle Fowls, Bulbuls, Brahminy Ducks, Kalij Pheasants, Egrets, Pelicans, Fishing Eagles, Crested Serpent-Eagles, Falcons, Scarlet Minivets, Bee-Eaters, Magpie Robins, Pied Hornbills, Grey Hornbills, Mergansers, Harriers, Ospreys, Herons etc and many mores.